Parity Issues in Criminal Justice

Project Lead: 
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Ray Bynum, Ed.D.

Ray Bynum
First and Last Name: 
Ray Bynum


Member for
8 years 4 months
(520) 579-7975
Current and Ongoing Research Interests: 

Conduct research on the philosophy of punishment, cultural conflict, re-entry issues with offenders with special need, parity in sheriff departments, and effectiveness of cultural conflict courses in criminal justice curriculum (college and in-service training). 

I am the lead for the Cultural Conflict and Society research community. We are expanding the research topics to include mental health issues, substance abuse, homelessness, and other topics involving criminal justice, etc. We provide presentations for the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (college criminal justice professors), the American Assocation of Behavorial and Social Sciences, and both UOP Southern Arizona/ Phoenix campuses. We have published in American Jails (American Jail Association), Police Chief (International Association of Chiefs of Police), and Southern Arizona Intercollegiate Journal ( UOP Southern Arizona Campus).

We are currently developing a research project for the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and the American Jail Association members. We are reviewing the effectiveness of cultural conflict curriculum in changing the beliefs towards criminal justice.






Value of a College Education in corrections
Mental Health Education and Corrections
Pay parity and Staff Attrition
Cultural conflict in corrections: A review
A gap in education: A crisis in jail staff education and research
Transformational leadership and staff training in law enforcement
Cooperative efforts : Law enforcement and corrections
Corrections as a Profession: Parity Issues in Corrections
Breeching plans: Corrections facilities
Tactical Operations within a correctional setting
The Impact of Higher Education On Cultural Conflict in Criminal Justice
Reentry and offenders with special needs: mental illness and addressing criminogenic needs
1967 President's Commission- Has Higher Education Met Its Obligation in Reducing Cultural Conflict in Criminal Justice and Society?
Parity Issues in Criminal Justice
University of Phoenix Courses: 
Professional Bio: 
My name is Ray Bynum from Tucson, Arizona. I have been in criminal justice for over 30 years. I began as a Security Police Officer in the Air Force. I returned to Southwest Missouri to be a deputy sheriff for Jasper County Sheriff's Department, Joplin, Missouri. I worked in the jail for a year, then worked in the ID, booking, communications and transport. I became an investigator in fugitive/warrants for two years. I moved to Arizona in 1982 and went to work for Pima County Sheriff's Department- Corrections. I became a Corrections Sergeant in Jan 1984. I have dealt with gang members, juveniles, females and the mentally ill. While working in the work release program, a few inmates would go to work and forget to return. I became the coordinator/ fugitive investigator for the AWOL Task Force in searching for and returning these inmates back to custody. A big game of hide/seek, except we used the entire United States and a few countries. I retired from the Sheriff’s Dept. in March 2010 after 27 + years. I have degrees in Criminal Justice, Public Management and Educational Leadership from Northern Arizona University. The doctoral dissertation topic was "Staff Education and Transformational Leadership in Criminal Justice." I am a member of the American Jail Association, National Tactical Officers Association and the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. I have been an online instructor in associate level Criminal Justice with University of Phoenix since May 2008. I am a dissertation chair and committee member for the UOP Doctor of Management and Healthcare Administration programs since August 2010 (criminal justice, security, juvenile justice, military, business admin, etc.). I am currently the lead for the Cultural Conflict and Society research community, Workplace Diversity Center. I have been teaching Criminal Justice, Higher Education and Substance Abuse to Masters and Doctoral Students at University of the Rockies since 2010. I am married with four grown children and nine grandchildren. We have cat who believes he owns the place. I have a lot of fun with the grandkids. I like to read, listen to music and travel. I enjoy teaching and believe in providing a rewarding educational experience.
Degrees Completed: 
Doctoral Degree
Educational Leadership (higher ed emphasis)
Northern Arizona University
Masters Degree
Educational Leadership (higher ed emphasis)
Northern Arizona University
Bachelors Degree
Criminal Justice
Northern Arizona University
Academic Appointments: 
Honors and Awards: 
Professional Education: 
Professional Suffix: 
Primary College or School: 
Type of Project: 

In 2014, the Parity Issues study began the survey of  the US county sheriff department jails/ regional jails. The study began looking at the comparison of attrition rates between corrections officers and deputies in departments with parity/ without parity. Other factors, such as training replacement costs, was examined. Part I will be published in the Mar/ Apr 2016 edition of American Jails for the American Jail Association.

The second stage of the study compared the pay level of command staff in county sheriff departments with parity/ without parity.

The current research project involves surveying US criminal justice professors in the relationship of law enforcment to corrections courses.

Project Status: 
Project Manuscript Accepted for Publication
Associated Presentations: 
Boyer's Domain: 
parity issues
law enforcement