Meditation, mindfulness, and critical thinking: individual characteristics in online higher education.
Limited research has been conducted on the relationship between age, ethnicity and gender and the use of meditation to strengthen critical thinking. The purpose of this research study will be to investigate the relationship of age, gender and ethnicity to the use of meditation to improve critical thinking. As a quantitative study the researchers sought to quantify the strength of relationships across these variables while making predictive judgments about the potential value of mindfulness approaches on learning. Participants in this study were members of a purposive sample of twenty-two (22) students attending a Holistic Healing Arts school in the western part of the United States. The dependent variable being considered is the improvement of critical thinking. The independent variables discussed in this study are factors related to age, ethnicity, gender and the use of mindfulness methods. The critical thinking skills were measured by the California Critical Thinking Skills Test-Numeracy (CCTST-N) validated/reliable online instrument. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was used to measure mindfulness.