The Refractive Thinker: Women in Leadership: Vol. XI. Refractive mentoring strategies for rising beyond biases and barriers to leadership promotions (pp. 1 – 15)

Women adopt various traditional titles for multiple roles such
as mother, aunt, grandmother, professional, coach, friend,
and wife. Other nontraditional titles are super-mom, superwoman,
and super-professional, which suggests the ability to complete
various tasks simultaneously and efficiently. Women, as
refractive thinkers, use the same out of the box thinking in the
superwoman roles, although overcoming workplace barriers and
biases appear unachievable when seeking promotion to administrative
and executive positions. Research data regarding the number
of senior executives or administrators working in all business,
government, and industrial organizations show a consistent underrepresentation
of women and minorities (McDonald & Westphal,
2013). Only 17.8% of law partners are women (Cody, 2105).
Although Cody’s (2015) data singularly focused on women
lawyers, a goal for most career women is to earn a senior management
position in corporate, education, government, professional,
and industrial organizations (Kaul &Mathur, 2012). The appearance
of gender biases or barriers for women is not fully known
because research data appear to focus on male to female biases (a
singular focus) rather than the multiplicity of gender and generational
factors present in the workforce. Traditional mentoring
Refractive Mentoring Strategies
for Rising Beyond Biases and Barriers
to Leadership Promotions
Dr. Gwendolyn C. Dooley
programs appear to be a cookie cutter approach for a male leadership
workplace rather than an innovative model that provide
women the flexibility to become administrators while balancing
the needs of family and other social activities. The chapter is a
review of literature on the underrepresentation of women leaders
in junior and senior positions. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss
the need for institutional mentoring programs that includes
refractive thinking strategies to address barriers of gender bias and
the lack of sustainable mentoring opportunities design for women
seeking executive and administrative positions.
This publication has been peer reviewed.
Publication Type: 
Book Chapter
Gwendolyn C. Dooley
Year of Publication: 
Journal, Book, Magazine or Other Publication Title: 
Refractive mentoring strategies for rising beyond biases and barriers to leadership promotions. In the Refractive Thinker (series Ed.),
Vol. XI.
chapter 1
Albuquerque, NM: The Refractive Thinker Press.
Date Published: 
Thursday, September 22, 2016
Publication Language: 
ISSN Number: 
Soft Cover 978-0-9974399-0-8 E-book/PDF 978-0-9974399-1-5; *Kindle and electronic versions available



Journal of Leadership Studies-Symposium Piece-Relational Leadership: Perspectives of Key Constructs on Diversity, Inclusion, and Social Equity in Higher Education

Psychology Today
Blog Posts Published


American Psychological Association Conference-Utilizing Clinical Hypnotherapeutic Intervention with CBT to Treat Pandemic-Aug. 13-2021 Symptomology

ILA Conference Geneva Switzerland 2021
Presenter -Topic-"The Stress Arc in Leadership and 3 Powerful Disciplines for Mitigating Major Stress Impacts in a New Era"-Upcoming
Presenter -Topic-“Improving Higher Education’s Role in Diversity and Social Equity through Relational Leadership in the New Era”-Upcoming
Presenter-Topic-"Healthcare Leadership-Using Virtuous Leadership in Chaos to Reimagine Beneficial Practices of Employee Cognitive Psychology"-Upcoming
2021-Knowledge Without Boundaries National Summit-College of Doctoral Studies Research Conference-University of Phoenix-Panel Discussion-"Exploring Emergent Trends in Leadership and Education"-Based on published symposia article from the Journal of Leadership Studies-