Assessing the degree of homogeneous online teaching textbook Infancy from 1999 to 2007 using the immediacy principle
Since the 1920s, textbook critics have maintained that textbooks should offer a homogenous editorial approach, including an acknowledgment of a mix of author opinion and scholarly research. Several researchers indicated that some textbooks are not homogenous. The purpose of this quantitative content analysis study was to examine whether independently authored online education textbooks published in the infancy of online teaching development from 1999 to 2007 included acknowledgment of scholarly studies pertaining to a teaching technique dubbed immediacy. In consideration of the growing field of online education and its efficacy, a secondary purpose of the study was to examine the effective transformation of scholarly knowledge to practice. For this study, teacher immediacy in the online classroom was operationalized as non-verbal teacher communications that foster psychological closeness and acknowledge student feelings in a timely manner. This study examined terminology related to immediacy in the first four chapters and chapter titles. The results indicated the early online textbooks did not prominently acknowledge immediacy terminology and did not include peer-reviewed scholarly immediacy references. Compared to terminology related to general student collaboration, the textbooks did not convey significant terminology related to student feelings or closeness, thus the textbooks did not offer a homogeneous approach regarding immediacy scholarship. In addition, in this instance, the books were idiosyncratic in communicating scholarly immediacy knowledge to the field.