Submission deadline 3-30-17. Submitted and accepted.
Offenders are two to four times more likely to suffer from a mental illness than the general public (Human Rights Watch, 2003; Litschge & Vaughn, 2008). Their behavior while incarcerated can be bizarre and significantly disruptive to other prisoners and staff. These behaviors may contribute to longer incarcerations, more frequent confinement to solitary, and increased vulnerability as victims. Offenders with moderate to severe mental illness are disproportionately confined to solitary, not only because of disruptive behavior but also for their own protection (Torrey et al., 2014). Solitary confinement results in worsening of mental illness due to the lack of stimulation and human contact. It is not surprising that most self-injurious behavior (suicide and self-mutilation) occurs while in solitary
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