Promoting a Culture of Wellness

Promoting a Culture of Wellness

Promoting a Culture of Wellness

Caring for you--Caring for me. (Pipas, 2018)

With over 50% of students, residents, nurses, clinicians, and researchers affected by burnout (Pipas, 2018), research is needed to understand both contributing factors and mitigation strategies.  Issues associated with physician stress are well-documented, but less is known about multigenerational nurses’ burnout and retention (Bugajski et al., 2017; Holleman, Cofta-Woerpel, & Gritz, 2015; Munnangi et al., 2018; Sanchez-Reilly et al., 2013; Shanafelt et al., 2015; West et al., 2009).  Nursing shortages challenge healthcare organizations to improve workforce engagement and retention to ensure delivery of quality care (Armmer, 2017; Huddleston & Gray 2016; World Health Organization, 2006) and promote a culture of wellness (Havens, Gittell, & Vasey, 2018; Pipas, 2018).

The increasingly diverse healthcare workforce encompasses generations including veterans, baby boomers, generation X, millennials, and generation Z (Hisel, 2017; Sweet & Swayze, 2017; Van Osch et al., 2017; Warshawski, Barnoy, & Kagan, 2017).  Generational diversity is a double-edged sword, catalyzing creativity and innovation as well as emotional burnout and turnover (Sweet & Swayze, 2017; Warshawski, Barnoy, & Kagan, 2017).  Research (Sweet & Swayze, 2017) has linked generational characteristics with supervisor-nurse relationships, job satisfaction, engagement, and commitment to the organization (Armmer, 2017; Brunetto, 2013; Stevanin, 2018).   

Studies outside of nursing correlate emotional intelligence with performance, motivation, and job satisfaction (Al-Hamdan et al., 2017), but there is limited research linking multigenerational nurses’ emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, and retention (Bandura, 1997; Bandura, 2000; Fida, Laschinger, & Leiter, 2018).  In this study, nursing staff of a healthcare system in the southwest United States will complete online emotional intelligence and job satisfaction surveys.  Results will be analyzed in the context of generation and turnover patterns to identify factors that may contribute to engagement and retention. Research will be completed by a collaborative partnership between the Center for Health and Nursing Research Fellow, a doctoral student, and a School of Advanced Studies alumna. 


Al‐Hamdan, Z., Oweidat, I. A., Al‐Faouri, I., & Codier, E. (2017, January). Correlating emotional intelligence and job performance among Jordanian hospitals’ registered nurses. Nursing Forum, 52(1), 12-20.

Armmer, F. (2017). An inductive discussion of the interrelationships between nursing shortage, horizontal violence, generational diversity, and healthy work environments. Administrative Sciences7(4), 34-36.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.

Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Current Directions in Psychological Science9(3), 75-78.

Brunetto, Y., Shriberg, A., Farr‐Wharton, R., Shacklock, K., Newman, S., & Dienger, J. (2013). The importance of supervisor–nurse relationships, teamwork, wellbeing, affective commitment and retention of North American nurses. Journal of Nursing Management21(6), 827-837.

Bugajski, A., Lengerich, A., Marchese, M., Hall, B., Yackzan, S., Davies, C., & Brockopp, D. (2017). The importance of factors related to nurse retention: Using the Baptist Health nurse retention questionnaire, part 2. Journal of Nursing Administration47(6), 308-312.

Fida, R., Laschinger, H. K. S., & Leiter, M. P. (2018). The protective role of self-efficacy against workplace incivility and burnout in nursing: A time-lagged study. Health Care Management Review43(1), 21-29.

Havens, D. S., Gittell, J. H., & Vasey, J. (2018). Impact of relational coordination on nurse job satisfaction, work engagement and burnout: Achieving the quadruple aim. Journal of Nursing Administration48(3), 132-140.

Hisel, M. E. (2017). Exploring generational differences of level of work engagement among veteran, baby boomer, generation X, and millennial nursing cohorts (Order No. 10608549). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1947275083). Retrieved from

Holleman, W. L., Cofta-Woerpel, L. M., & Gritz, E. R. (2015). Stress and morale of academic biomedical scientists. Academic Medicine90(5), 562-564.

Kline, B. N. (2018). Job satisfaction and the effects and influences on nurse retention (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).

Munnangi, S., Dupiton, L., Boutin, A., & Angus, L. G. (2018). Burnout, perceived stress, and job satisfaction among trauma nurses at a level I safety-net trauma center. Journal of Trauma Nursing25(1), 4-13.

Newman, M. (2017). Improving nurse mentor retention through the use of nurse residency programs (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).

Pipas, C. F. (2018, April 19).  Caring for you–Caring for me:   A call to prioritize health in health professionals and health care systems.  College of Medicine Humanism in Medicine Grand Rounds. Geisel School of Medicine Dartmouth. 

Sanchez-Reilly, S., Morrison, L. J., Carey, E., Bernacki, R., O'Neill, L., Kapo, J., ... & deLima Thomas, J. (2013). Caring for oneself to care for others: physicians and their self-care. The Journal of Supportive Oncology11(2), 75-81.

Shanafelt, T. D., Hasan, O., Dyrbye, L. N., Sinsky, C., Satele, D., Sloan, J., & West, C. P. (2015, December). Changes in burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance in physicians and the general US working population between 2011 and 2014. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 90, No. 12, pp. 1600-1613). Elsevier.

Stevanin, S., Palese, A., Bressan, V., Vehviläinen‐Julkunen, K., & Kvist, T. (2018, February 28). Workplace‐related generational characteristics of nurses: A mixed‐methods systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Retrieved from

Sweet, J., & Swayze, S. (2017). The multi-generational nursing workforce: Analysis of psychological capital by generation and shift. Journal of Organizational Psychology17(4), 19-28.

Van Osch, M., Scarborough, K., Crowe, S., Wolff, A. C., & Reimer‐Kirkham, S. (2017). Understanding the factors which promote registered nurses’ intent to stay in critical care and emergency areas. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(5-6), 1209-1215.

West, C. P., Dyrbye, L. N., Sloan, J. A., & Shanafelt, T. D. (2009). Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are useful for assessing burnout in medical professionals. Journal of General Internal Medicine24(12), 1318.

World Health Organization. (2006). Working together for health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.




Jared D. Padgett's picture Jared D. Padgett | May 22, 2018 8:57 pm MST

Frontline staff often have the best idea of how an organization is performing. An organization that seeks to understand the perspectives of frontline staff will be in a good position to make any adjustments or improvements necessary to provide opportunities for staff and their patients to thrive. Emotional intelligence may indeed be one factor that helps nurses and other healthcare staff perform well in such a challenging environment. I'm looking forward to reading the results of this study. It is great to see this example of collaboration between our research center, students, and alumni.

Louise Underdahl's picture Louise Underdahl | May 22, 2018 9:15 pm MST

Hi Jared,

Thank you for sharing our interest in the ramifications of emotional intelligence for the health care community.  Research (Tyczkowski et al., 2015) has linked emotional intelligence with positive clinical and organizational trends and we hope to learn more!

Tyczkowski, B., Vandenhouten, C., Reilly, J., Bansal, G., Kubsch, S., & Jakkola, R. (2015). Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 39(2), 172–80.

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