Global Studies of Entrepreneurial Orientation at the Individual Level

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Norris Krueger, PhD

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Norris Krueger


Member for
8 years 2 months
(208) 440-3747
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See my "research top ten" linked here:


Norris Krueger, PhD

I am passionate about understanding how we learn to think like entrepreneurs and that quest has taken me deeper and deeper, even to learning more about neuroscience. At the same time, my work has taken me the opposite way - how do we use that knowledge to grow entrepreneurial communities and entrepreneurial people.

It has also been gratifying to see that cognitive science applied to entrepreneurship also open doors to better understanding important domains such as social & sustainable entrepreneurship and technology commercialization.

The work always get more and more intellectually challenging but it has afforded me the opportunities to meet and work with some of the greatest minds, young and old, in our field. It certainly has been an honor to help advance the field and especially younger scholars, but I have gained far more. Here following are my ten favorite research publications which should give you a sense of the breadth and depth of my research interests and achievements. A separate document contains a list of links to download the documents.

Norris Krueger, PhD


Most cited author in entrepreneurial intentions. Google Scholar calculates #2 most cites for social entrepreneurship and #26 for entrepreneurship [9585 unique  cites;]. I am continuing to study intentions but now looking at dynamic models and the deep beliefs/assumptions that anchor intent. Tying intentions research to deeper phenomena from cognitive science allows entrepreneurship scholars to contribute to intentions research beyond entrepreneurship.

1. Krueger, N.F., Reilly, M.D. & Carsrud, A.L. Entrepreneurial intentions: A competing models approach, Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5/6): 411-432, 2000. [>1000 cites per Google Scholar, #1]

2. Krueger, N.F. & Brazeal, D.V. Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 18(3): 91-104, 1994. [>1000 cites]

3. Krueger N.F. Entrepreneurial intentions are dead; Long live entrepreneurial intentions. In: Carsrud A, Brännback M (eds.) The Entrepreneurial Mind. Springer, New York, 2009.

(Also: Krueger 1993 ETP [first publication] has 665 cites; Krueger & Carsrud 1994 ERD has 429.)


Strong interest area today with great practical applicability as well as big opportunities to apply cognitive science (even neuroscience). Only one other scholar has been applying dcognitive evelopmental psychology to entrepreneurial learning but this approach has immense potential.

4. Krueger, N.F. What Lies Beneath? The Experiential Essence of Entrepreneurial Thinking Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 31(1): 123-138, 2007. [142 cites already]

5. Krueger N.F. The microfoundations of entrepreneurial learning and education. In: Gatewood E, West GP (eds.) The Handbook of University Wide Entrepreneurship. Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.


The intentions research is situated in broader issues from cognitive science. I have written the entrepreneurial cognition chapter for the Acs & Audretsch international handbook for research in both editions. My dissertation actually started here with an experimental study of self-efficacy.

6. Krueger, N.F. & Day, M.L. Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From Entrepreneurial  Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship In Z Acs (ed.) International Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, 2nd edition, Springer, 2010. [Also, chapter in first edition 2005 has at least 169 cites.]

7. Krueger, N.F. & Dickson, P. R. How believing in ourselves influences risk taking: Self-efficacy and opportunity recognition, Decision Sciences. 25(3): 385-400, 1994. [386 cites]


A powerful way to look at entrepreneurial cognition is to focus on more specific domains,  especially those of great salience (and great practical value). Social and sustainable entrepreneurship has long been a passion for me. I edited the first two special journal issues on environmental entrepreneurship, introduced Ashoka [and Bill Drayton himself] to the Academy of Management and continue to apply cutting-edge cognitive science to this domain.

8. Krueger N, Hansen D, Michl T, Welsh D (2012) Thinking ‘Sustainably’: The Role of Intentions, Cognitions & Emotions in Understanding New Domains of Entrepreneurship. In Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship (T Lumpkin, J Katz, eds) Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, 13, 279–313.


Most recent enthusiasm has been work in advancing technology commercialization. The University of Utah white paper/case study has been downloaded over 1000 times []. Current work looks at the impact of the entrepreneurial mindset and the entrepreneurial ecosystem (innovation system) and changes through the commercialization process.

The Brannback, et al. was the first opportunity for me to propose a model that centers on liaison-
animateurs. Combining interests in cognition and technology commercialization, I have initiated a project with Twente to look at the co-evolution of entrepreneurs and their ventures, resulting in the well-received Babson 2012 paper below.

9. Brannback, M., Carsrud, A, Krueger, N. & Elfving, J. Challenging the Triple Helix model of regional innovation systems: a venture-centric model, International Journal of Technology Entrepreneurship, 1(3): 257-277, 2008.

10. G Kaffka, NF Krueger (2012) From Grand Idea to Viable Execution: How Do Ventures and Entrepreneurs Co-Evolve? Paper presented at Babson Research Conference, Fort Worth TX [also available at SSRN 2098031]

DOWNLOAD LINKS for Krueger Top Ten Publications

Note: I am happy to email these as attachments if you prefer or load them into Dropbox.

1. Krueger, Reilly, Carsrud 2000 JBV:

2. Krueger & Brazeal 1994 ETP:

3. Krueger review chapter on intent 2010:

4. Krueger 2007 ETP:

5. Krueger entrepreneurship education chapter 2009:

6. Krueger & Day chapter in Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research 2010 (Acs & Audretsch, eds):

7. Krueger & Dickson 1994 Decision Sciences:

8. Lumpkin chapter:

9. IJTE:

10. Babson 2012:

Competing Models of Entrepreneurial Intentions
Entrepreneurial Potential & Potential Entrepreneurs
Generating resources through co-evolution of entrepreneurs and ecosystems
Person-level entrepreneurial orientation: A clue to the ‘entrepreneurial mindset?’
The impact of entrepreneurship education in higher education: A systematic review and research agenda
The micro-foundations of entrepreneurial learning and… education: the experiential essence of entrepreneurial cognition
What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking
A Thematic Paper on Entrepreneurship Education in Practice: Part 1 - The Entrepreneurial Mindset
Handbook of Research Methodologies and Design in Neuro-entrepreneurship
Is Research on Entrepreneurial Intentions Growing… Or just Getting Bigger?
The impact of entrepreneurship education in higher education: A systematic review and research agenda.
Knowledge Creation and Relationship Marketing in Family Businesses: A Case-Study Approach
Is Research on Entrepreneurial Intentions Growing? Or…Just Getting Bigger?
Is Research on Entrepreneurial Intentions Growing… Or just Getting Bigger?”
Entrepreneurial Intentions Are Dead: Long Live Entrepreneurial Intentions
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Professional Bio: 
Leading consultant, educator and scholar of entrepreneurship -- special foci on: 1) growing and assessing the entrepreneurial mindset and deep experiential learning (even neuroentrepreneurship) 2) growing and assessing the entrepreneurial ecosystem (and organizational innovation systems) - Consultant to OECD, EU, Kauffman Foundation, etc. Looking to chair dissertations on innovation, entrepreneurship and related topics (family business, intrapreneurship, small business, creativity, lean startup, design thinking/human-centered design/product design, crowdfunding, etc. )
Degrees Completed: 
Doctoral Degree
the Ohio State University
Academic Appointments: 
Visiting Professor, Entrepreneurship & Innovation
Alba Graduate School of Business
Assistant professor & program director
Boise State University
Sunday, September 5, 1999 to Saturday, June 10, 2006
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As a field, we have identified and characterized an “entrepreneurial orientation” that reflects an entrepreneurial “mindset” or strategic vision at the firm level. We tend to presume the existence of a corresponding entrepreneurial orientation at the individual-level; witness the constant calls to emphasize growing the “entrepreneurial mindset” in training and in communities. Seeking this personal EO offers us an opportunity to revisit some important issues from the earlier days of entrepreneurship and strategy research such as strategic vision and strategic intent. It also allows us to address a contentious question for today, that of conceptualizing and measuring the “entrepreneurial mindset.”

For this project, we are seeking interested faculty or students to participate in conducting survey in various countries. For more details, please email


Project Status: 
Project Manuscript Accepted for Publication
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