Black Towns and Gentrification—Does Preservation depend on location?

Black Towns and Gentrification—Does Preservation depend on location?


Freedmen towns were towns founded by African Americans after the Civil War.  Often, these towns provided a structure for African Americans to develop, thrive, and grow while oppressed outside of these areas.


As times changed, many of these towns did not last.  From the boll weevil and hopes of the movement west to the bombing and destruction of others, many towns were destroyed.  However, many towns did last but were not well preserved.


Conference Reviewer – eReviewer- Managing Tourism Across Continents Conference 3

Title: Transformational Leadership, Social Exchanges, and Innovation Work Behavior in Swat Valley Pakistan

Study of the Tourism business in Pakistan and looks at the work behavior that is directly and indirectly impacted by the leaders’ transformation leadership.

The study is a survey that targeted 403 frontline workers and the researchers validated 302 responses for a 74.9 response rate which is high and valid for the study.

The conceptual model using the structural equation modeling (SEM) was appropriate for this study.

Students’ Perceptions of Dissertation Preparedness: A Mixed Methods Case Study

According to Ames, Berman & Casteel (2016), universities have a 40 to 70 percent attrition rate among doctoral students. The College of Doctoral Studies (CDS) has an attrition rate of 50%. Though the SEOCS are collected from students after each class, a comprehensive analysis is necessary to discover if the students' experiences in dissertation-related courses have a relationship to how long it takes to complete the dissertation process


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